All sources cited within the text of a document must be listed on the Reference page.
The Reference page format:
Basic elements of an in text citation include: Author(s) and Date
Parenthetical (citation after a paraphrased statement or direct quote): (Author, Date)
Narrative (citation within a paraphrase): Author (Date)
In text citations of 2 authors:
Parenthetical: (Author 1 Last Name & Author 2 Last Name, Date)
Narrative: Within a Author 1 Last Name and Author 2 Last Name (Date) paraphrased statement
In text citations with 3 or more authors are cited with "et al."
Parenthetical: Paraphrased statement or direct quote (Author 1 Last name et al., Date).
Narrative: Citation Author 1 Last name et al. (2020) within a paraphrased statement.
In a citation where the author is unknown or cannot reasonably be determined the title of the work takes the place of the author.
If the title of the work is italicized in the reference list, the title is italicized for the in text citation.
If the title of the work is not italicized in the reference list, use double quotation marks for the in text citation.
Parenthetical in text citations of multiple works are used when paraphrased information is acquired from multiple sources.
The citations are listed alphabetically and separated by a semicolon.
In the first in text citation of a group or organizational author, the full name of the group or organization name must be provided with the abbreviation listed immediately after the full name.
All in text citations following the first, the group or organizational author may be abbreviated.
Parenthetical: Parenthetical in text citations of a group or organizational author, the abbreviation is contained in square brackets.
Narrative: In the first narrative citation of a group or organizational author, the group name is provided in full, with the abbreviation immediately after, followed by the date of publication.
If the date of an information/evidence source is unknown, the work is dated as "no date" and written as "n.d."
Tip: For website sources, check the bottom of the webpage for dates of revision or copyright, this would be the date used.
Parenthetical: (Gladdine, n.d.)
Narrative: Gladdine (n.d.)
Print book basic format:
Includes the author(s) last name(s) and intial(s). (Date of copyright) The title of the book is italicized (edition, volume.). Publisher name.
Author Last Name, Initials, & Author Last Name, Initials. (Date). Title of book. (ed. vol.). Publisher name. DOI or URL
**Note: Include the DOI when available. If the book has no DOI but is available on a website outside of an academic database, include the URL. Do not include the URL for books from academic research databases.
If a book has 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors, and then use the an ellipsis (...) followed by the name of the last author.
Daclafani, C. B., Drahl, D., Nison, S., Chrest, S., Collson, C., Randive, M., Smith, T., Davis, R., Cameroon, M., Reiner, B., Hand, T., Burtick, K., Stenston, P., Walker, R., Coxx, N., Colvey, S., Jackson, B., Mastre, A., Creswell, J., ...Polsdam, N. (2016). A compilation of works. Lippincott Williams Wilkins.
Note: An edited book will replace the author's name with the editor's name.
Guitar, B. & McCauley, R. (Eds.) (2016). Treatment of stuttering: Established and emerging interventions. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Basic elements of a journal citation:
Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Date). Article title. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), page numbers. https://doi.org/xxxxxxxxxx
All authors (up to 20) are listed within the reference list of a journal citation.
Journal article with a DOI:
Journal article without a DOI:
Note about DOI:
APA Style includes digital object identifiers (DOIs) in an article citation.
As noted in the ATSU Writing Center:
You need to use either the DOI or the URL of the webpage that takes a reader directly to the journal article referenced. A webpage that requires either special permission (such as access to ATSU/EBSCOhost) or a subscription will not work. Do some sleuthing to see if you can find the original article and then use the appropriate DOI or URL. If neither the DOI nor direct URL exist, the home page of the journal can be used if necessary.
If the source is an online scholarly article that has no DOI and is published on a database, such as EBSCO, and is considered "widely available," it does not need a URL or any database information in the reference (see Section 9.30 of the APA manual). However, the exception to this rule is if the original is a dissertation or thesis through ProQuest or a similar database (in limited circulation), see the templates for unpublished and published dissertations in Section 10.6 of the APA manual for proper format of the references.
Author, Initials. (Year, Month, Day). Title of page. Website name. URL
If the publishing organization and the website name are the same, you do not need to include the website name in your citation.
Name of Organization Or Group. (Date). Title of page. Website name. URL
Name of Specific Agency or Organization Responsible for Content. (Date). Title of webpage. Add names of parent agencies if available. URL
Webpages may not have individual authors. Use the agency, company or organization responsible for the information. If there is no obvious date, there may be a date last modified located near the end of the content. If neither are present, use n.d. for "no date".
If you are citing a website in which the contents of the page are likely to change frequently, include a retrieval date in your citation.
Author, Initials. (Date). Title of page. Website name. Retrieved Date, from URL
Individual author(s) or Organization. (Date). Title of report or gray literature (include report number if applicable). Publisher name. DOI
Presenter Last name, Initial. (Date of presentation). Title of contribution [Type of contribution]. Conference name, location. DOI or URL.
Type of contribution may include:
Author Last name, Initial. (Date). Title of dissertation [Doctoral dissertation, Name of Institution Awarding the degree]. Database name. Archive Name. URL.
Author Last name, Initial. (Date). Title of dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Name of Institution awarding the degree.
Author Last name, Initial. (Date). Title of thesis [Unpublished master's thesis]. Name of institution awarding the degree.
Author. (Publication Date). Title of Dataset. (Version #) [Data set]. Publisher. DOI/URL
O’Donohue, W. (2017). Content analysis of undergraduate psychology textbooks (ICPSR 21600; Version V1) [Data set]. ICPSR. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR36966.v1
Cool, H. E. M., & Bell, M. (2011). Excavations at St Peter’s Church, Barton-upon-Humber [Data set]. doi:10.5284/1000389
Our librarians have created an interactive, online escape room tutorial to help you learn more about how to cite sources in APA style. See the links below to take the tutorial or view a PDF version of the tutorial.