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Academic Writing Resources

Resources to support the use of AMA, APA, & other styles as well as other aspects of academic writing

The purpose of citation

Source citation in research: 

  • Gives credit to the original author
  • Demonstrates to the reader that the writer has done the appropriate background research
  • A method of participating in scholarly communication
  • Avoids plagiarism of copyrighted materials
  • Provides readers with links to additional information resources


CGHS Academic Integrity Policy

"Plagiarism is the act of presenting the words, ideas, or images of another as your own; it denies authors or creators of content the credit they are due. Whether deliberate or unintentional, plagiarism violates ethical standards in scholarship” (see APA Ethics Code Standard 8.11, Plagiarism). 

CGHS Defines Plagiarism 

Plagiarism is the presentation of another’s work as if it were one’s original. Proper and complete citation and reference, in accordance with APA style guidelines, is required of all student work. Specific examples of plagiarism include:

  • Cutting and pasting or re-entering information from another’s work into a document without correct citation or attribution
  • Information is attributed to a source other than the original
  • Material authored by someone else is submitted as original work
  • Turning in previously prepared work, in part or in whole, is considered self-plagiarism and is unacceptable. In instances where it may be appropriate to include prior work, the student must obtain permission from the instructor to include the prior work.
  • Information is properly cited but the paraphrasing is not substantively different from the original source
  • Infrequent or missing citations

Types of Plagiarism

Plagiarism is the presentation of another’s work as if it were one’s original work. This includes both deliberate and accidental acts. The following are some of the major common types.


Direct Plagiarism Copying work exactly without citation and presenting it as original
Self Plagiarism Re-submitting or re-using your own previously published or submitted work without permission or notice
Paraphrasing Plagiarism Copying work and making minor changes without citation and presenting it as original
Patchwork Plagiarism Copying work and interspersing it with original work but presenting it all as original
Accidental Plagiarism Failure to properly cite or paraphrase
Bad Attribution Failure to correctly attribute work - mislabeling the actual authors or creators