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Evidence Based Practice: 5 A's

Applying the Evidence

The application of evidence is the next step once the evidence has been critically appraised, and found to be valid, reliable and relevant to the patient/population of focus. Clinical knowledge and experience are synthesized with the gathered evidence and the patients' values to reach a clinical decision.  

the 4 aspects of clinical decision making are the synthesis of patient values, research evidence, clinical experience and practice context

Considerations for the application of evidence: 

  1. Critical appraisal of the evidence: is it relevant to the clinical context and patient values?
  2. Is it optimal for patient treatment?
  3. Does this conform with the patient's values and preference? 
  4. Have the potential benefits, harms, costs and inconveniences been considered? 



Chapter 16 "Applying Evidence with Patients"